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About PaGeS

The German/Spanish parallel Corpus, PaGeS, is a bilingual parallel corpus composed of two major parts: the core corpus and the supplements.

The core corpus is comprised of original texts in German and Spanish and their respective translations. It includes 178 works of fiction —novels and short stories, making up around 80% — as well as non-fiction — essays and popular science texts. The selected works are represented not by the full texts, but rather by samples, allowing for a better cross-section of the texts.

This part of PaGeS (s. below) contains nearly 38,000,000 tokens and 1.117.040 bisegments, i.e. pairs of aligned text chunks (sentences or subsentential units/segments).

To guarantee overall quality, the texts have been manually verified at different levels and the automatic alignment of the bisegments, performed by LF-Aligner, some of them by YouAlign or Gargantua has been manually reviewed. The German texts have been lemmatized and pos-tagged with Treetagger and the Spanish texts with Freeling. The tags of both have been subsequently mapped to the Universal POS tags, that mark the core part-of-speech categories.

For each occurrence, the original source is provided, which includes information on the author, title, year of the first publication, and — if applicable —the edition used and the part or chapter within the work to which the specific occurrence belongs. The complete bibliographic data of the works included in PaGeS can be found here.

The supplements contain a total of more than 80 million words. The supplements include so far:

  1. 18 works of fiction from German and Spanish texts translated from a third language. The alignment of these texts has been checked manually. The list of these works can be found here
  2. Europarl v7, a corpus that collects the proceedings (Verbatim reports) of the European Parliament from 1996 to 2011. Segments with more than 350 characters (in Spanish and/or German) and those with a character imbalance exceeding a 2:1 ratio have been excluded.
  3. Ted-Talks, a corpus that collects the German and Spanish translations of the transcripts of 2859 TED-Talks from 2006 to 2020.

In the near future, new collections of bilingual texts of diverse origin are expected to be added.

Even though the initial impulse for the creation of PaGeS was to provide a broad source of data for contrastive linguistic research, the excellent reception by very diverse users has motivated us to strive for greater interoperability and standardization in order to make PaGeS a multifunctional resource able to meet the differentiated needs of our users. We aim at building a representative language resource for the language pair German / Spanish that can be exploited for multiple purposes such as general research in contrastive linguistics, linguistic typology, translation studies and bilingual lexicography, as well as the supply of training data to machine translation systems. PaGeS has also proven to be a very useful and widely used resource by translators and learners of German or Spanish as Foreign Languages at intermediate and advanced levels to obtain a multitude of translation suggestions made by humans and presented within examples of real language use.

For more detailed information about PaGeS, see the publications webpage.

Despite our best efforts, some mistakes have undoubtedly slipped through. If you come across any, please let us know by clicking here.


If you use PaGeS in your work, please indicate it and let us know: corpuspages@usc.es. This way you contribute to the sustainability of the project.

Statistics PaGeS

Core Corpus

German Original 45.774.970 10.313.588 8.784.334 0.577 662.307 108
Spanish Translation 43.606.674 10.829.682 9.415.876 0.542
Spanish Original 35.148.172 8.687.999 7.598.269 0.539 484.590 91
German Translation 39.138.385 8.787.719 7.517.057 0.572
Total 163.668.201 38.618.725 33.315.536 0.5575 1.146.897 199

Supplements 1: Fiction translated from a third language

German Translation 10.885.529 2.463.109 2.097.569 0.569 152.077 18
Spanish Translation 10.008.379 2.479.765 2.148.750 0.545
Total 20.893.908 4.942.874 4.246.319 0.557 152.077 18

Supplements 2: Europarl v7

German 203.075.349 37.703.328 33.405.712 0.542 1.555.845
Spanish 190.849.843 41.518.229 37.694.928 0.481
Total 393.925.192 79.221.557 71.100.640 0.5115 1.555.845

Supplements 3: TED-Talks

German 25.344.941 5.599.587 4.754.108 0.542 321.924
Spanish 23.824.529 5.805.812 5.046.593 0.506
Total 49.169.470 11.405.399 9.800.701 0.525 321.924

*MSTTR is the average TTR (Type/Token Ratio) for each non-overlapping segment of equal size (in this case 1000 tokens).

(Stand: 01/12/2023, Release 2.1)

PaGeS Vers. 2.1
Last updated: 04.12.2023
ISLRN 300-741-224-666-2
ISSN 2605-5228 ©PaCorES
Creative Commons Licencia Creative Commons
University of Santiago de Compostela
This project is funded by the State Research Agency (AEI) of Spanish Ministry of Science, Innovation and University (PID2021-125313OB-I00).