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About PaGeS

The German/Spanish parallel Corpus, PaGeS, is a bilingual parallel corpus composed of two major parts: the core corpus and the supplements.

The core corpus is comprised of original texts in German and Spanish and their respective translations, as well as a small percentage (around 6%) of texts (in German and Spanish) translated from a third language. It includes 178 works of fiction —novels and short stories, making up around 80%— as well as non-fiction — essays and popular science texts. The selected works are represented not by the full texts, but rather by samples, allowing for a better cross-section of the texts.

This part of PaGeS (s. below) contains some 38,000,000 tokens and 1.117.040 bisegments, i.e. pairs of aligned text chunks (sentences or subsentential units/segments).

To guarantee overall quality, the texts have been manually verified at different levels and the automatic alignment of the bisegments, performed by LF-Aligner, has been manually reviewed.

For each occurrence, the original source is provided, which includes information on the author, title, year of the first publication, and — if applicable —the edition used and the part or chapter within the work to which the specific occurrence belongs. The complete bibliographic data of the works included in PaGeS can be found here.

The supplements contain a total of more than 80 million words. Segments over 80 words (in Spanish and/or German) have been excluded. The supplements include so far:

  1. Europarl v7, a corpus that collects the proceedings (Verbatim reports) of the European Parliament from 1996 to 2011.
  2. Ted-Talks, a corpus that collects the German and Spanish translations of the transcriptions of Ted-Talks from 2006 to 2020.

In the near future, new collections of bilingual texts of diverse origin are expected to be added.

Even though the initial impulse for the creation of PaGeS was to provide a broad source of data for contrastive linguistic research, the excellent reception by very diverse users has motivated us to strive for greater interoperability and standardization in order to make PaGeS a multifunctional resource able to meet the differentiated needs of our users. We aim at building a representative language resource for the language pair German / Spanish that can be exploited for multiple purposes such as general research in contrastive linguistics, linguistic typology, translation studies and bilingual lexicography, as well as the supply of training data to machine translation systems. PaGeS has also proven to be a very useful and widely used resource by translators and learners of German or Spanish as Foreign Languages at intermediate and advanced levels to obtain a multitude of translation suggestions made by humans and presented within examples of real language use.

For more detailed information about PaGeS, see the publications webpage.

Despite our best efforts, some mistakes have undoubtedly slipped through. If you come across any, please let us know by clicking here.


If you use PaGeS in your work, please indicate it and let us know: corpuspages@usc.es. This way you contribute to the sustainability of the project.

Statistics PaGeS

Core Corpus

German Original 37.291.320 6.7951.11 7.916.098 702 444 504.318 86
Spanish Translation 35.583.020 7.310.765 8.352.177 136.627
Spanish Original 34.871.266 7.255.827 8.270.893 143.217 461.428 74
German Translation 38.881.096 7.178.719 8.368.826 186.569
German Translation <3rd language 11.247.605 2.084.860 2.464.909 74.244 151.294 18
Spanish Translation <3rd language 10.337.022 2.149.204 2.483.199 57.389
Total 168.211.329 32.774.486 37.856.102 1.117.040 178

Supplements: Europarl v7

German 219.099.293 35.222.373 39.726.336 1.586.374
Spanish 205.008.875 39.664.923 43.662.223
Total 424.108.168 74.887.296 83.388.559 1.586.374

Supplements: TED-Talks

German 31.269.086 4.758.244 5.186.945 164.318 310.968
Spanish 30.180.586 5.045.346 5.356.693 107.136
Total 61.449.672 9.803.590 10.543.638 271.454 310.968

(Release: 01/09/2021)

PaGeS Vers. 2.0
Update: 22.11.2022
ISLRN 300-741-224-666-2 ISSN
2605-5228 ©PaCorES
Creative Commons Licencia Creative Commons
University of Santiago de Compostela
This project is funded by the State Research Agency (AEI) of Spanish Ministry of Science, Innovation and University (PID2021-125313OB-I00).